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Eagle Scout is the highest rank attainable in the Scouts BSA program division of the Boy Scouts of America BSA. Since it was first awarded to Arthur Rose Eldred on August 21, , Eagle Scout has been earned by more than two million youth. As of , requirements include earning at least 21 merit badges and demonstrating Scout Spirit , leadership, and service. The requirements include an Eagle Scout Service Project where the Scout must further demonstrate service and leadership. Eagle Palms are a further recognition, awarded for completing additional tenure, leadership, and merit badge requirements. Typically adult volunteers who have received the Eagle award as a youth wear a smaller patch depicting a square knot. The Distinguished Eagle Scout Award DESA is bestowed to Eagle Scouts for nationally renowned distinguished service in their profession and to the community for a period of at least 25 years after earning the Eagle Scout rank.

Archived from the original on July 5, Ain't It Cool?

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Warner Books. Knoxville News Sentinel. Mike Lee U. Senator for Utah. NESA Outstanding Eagle Scout Award. Boy Scouts of America, Utah National Parks Council. Archived from the original on September 4, Retrieved September 6, Rice University. Archived from the original on August 23, And the Show Goes On. Limelight Editions. Atlanta Falcons. Retrieved April 28, Retrieved February 11, TroopSanta Rosa, California.

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Ralph Puckett took into U. Nobel Prize. Utah Attorney General's Office. Reyes was recently awarded the Distinguished Eagle Award by the Great Salt Lake Council, Boy Scouts of America". October 28, - via Facebook. Greenspun Media Group.

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Department of Defense. How to Create Your Own Luck. John Wiley and Sons. Eversheds Sutherland.

Eagle Scout is the highest rank attainable in the Scouts BSA program division of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). Since it was first awarded to Arthur Rose Eldred on August 21, , Eagle Scout has been earned by more than two million youth. The list below includes notable recipients. As of , requirements include earning at least 21 merit badges and demonstrating Scout Spirit, leadership The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European language naox-cap.com six most widely spoken Romance languages by number of native speakers are Spanish ( million), Portuguese ( million), French Discover the latest MLB News and Videos from our Experts on Yahoo Sports

Eagle Scout Magazine. Archived from the original on December 1, The Catholic Review. August 31, Richard Spencer Honored with Outstanding Eagle Scout Award". Retrieved June 28, Where the Bluebird Sings to the Lemonade Springs. Tri Village Rotary Club. Archived from the original DOC on July 28, Honolulu Weekly. WSFA 12 News. Archived from the original on December 20, July 14, Tarr, -". Scouting May-June Tatham, Boy Scout Leader".

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The Seattle Times. August 17, January 23, Retrieved June 3, Charles Whitman: The Texas Tower Sniper. Crime Library. Archived from the original on July 29, August 23, August 12, Wilson: Biologist and Eagle Scout". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on July 1, Young American Hero Was an Eagle First". Archived from the original on November 10, Retrieved October 16, Young, Jr.

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Advancement and recognition. Advancement and recognition Boy Scouting and Varsity Scouting awards Ranks Eagle Scout First Class Scout Merit badge Order of the Arrow honors and awards Venturing and Sea Scouting awards Quartermaster Award Ranger Award Summit Award Distinguished service awards Outstanding Eagle Scout Award Distinguished Eagle Scout Award Silver Beaver Award Silver Antelope Award Silver Buffalo Award Silver World Award Other awards Miler Award Historic Trails Award International Activity Patch Religious emblems programs Spirit of the Eagle Award Square knot insignia William T.

Hornaday Awards World Conservation Award Young American Award. Leadership, training, and awards. Leadership Introduction to Leadership Skills for Troops Introduction to Leadership Skills for Crews National Advanced Youth Leadership Experience National Youth Leadership Training National Youth Leadership Training Leadership Academy Kodiak Powder Horn Scouter's Key Award Scouter's Training Award Seabadge Wood Badge Philmont Leadership Challenge Youth Protection program.

Chief Scout Executive National president Recipients of the Distinguished Service Award Eagle Scouts Recipients of the Silver Buffalo Award Daniel Carter Beard William D. Boyce Carroll A. Edson E. Urner Goodman William Hillcourt Ernest Thompson Seton Unknown Scout James E. Camporee Klondike derby Order of the Arrow national events National Scout jamboree Operation On-Target Pinewood derby COPE Raingutter regatta Space derby Strengthen the Arm of Liberty. Boy Scout Handbook Boy Scout Memorial Scout Life Scouting Alpha Phi Omega Epsilon Tau Pi History of merit badges History Norman Rockwell calendar illustrations Scouting in popular culture The Ideal Scout Trail's End popcorn Tribe of Mic-O-Say Uniform and insignia.

Membership controversies Sex abuse Barnes-Wallace v. Boy Scouts of America Boy Scouts of America Equal Access Act Boy Scouts of America v. Dale Cradle of Liberty Council v. City of Philadelphia Curran v. Mount Diablo Council of the Boy Scouts of America Evans v. Berkeley Randall v. Orange County Council Scouting for All Support Our Scouts Act Welsh v.

Boy Scouts of America Winkler v. Rumsfeld Wrenn v. Boy Scouts of America Yeaw v. Name Eagle Scout Awards Notability References Bruce Ableson. Gary Ackerman. James C. Army colonel and astronaut who flew on shuttle missions STS and STS Peter Aduja.

First Filipino American elected to public office in the United States when he was elected as a representative in the Hawaii Legislature in Peter Agre. Medical doctor, professor, and molecular biologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of aquaporin ; president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. William Vollie Alexander Jr. Representative from Arkansas - Lamar Alexander.

Governor of Tennessee - ; Secretary of Education - ; Senator from Tennessee - Dana Altman. College men's basketball coach at Oregon ; formerly at CreightonKansas State and Marshall.

Bill Amend. Cartoonist, best known for his comic strip FoxTrot. John Edward Anderson. Founder of Topa Equities, namesake of UCLA Anderson School of Management. Rudolf Anderson. Air Force officer; first recipient of the Air Force Cross ; the only person killed by enemy fire during the Cuban Missile Crisis when his U-2 spy aircraft was shot down over Cuba. Phillip Andrew "Pip" Arnold. Singer; semi-finalist on The Glee Project ; competitor on The Voice. David Archuleta.

Carlos Arguelles. Prominent Filipino architect known for being a leading proponent of the International Style of architecture in the Philippines in the s. Neil Armstrong. Astronaut who flew on the Gemini 8 and Apollo 11 missions; test pilot and naval aviator; first human to set foot on the Moon. Gary Arndt. Kenneth A. Aviator and businessman, known especially for early UFO sightings. Alan C. Co-founder of WordPerfect ; former professor at Brigham Young University.

Marvin J. Member of the Quorum of the Twelve of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ; businessman; Utah state senator. Brent F. Norman R. Aerospace businessman; former CEO of Martin Marietta Aerospace. Leslie Aulds. Former professional baseball player Boston Red Sox and collegiate umpire. Brad Avakian. Commissioner of the Oregon Bureau of Labor and Industries ; former Oregon state representative and senator. James Adamson Bill Amend Neil Armstrong. Name Eagle Scout Awards Notability References Lawrence S.

President of Harvard Universityformer President of Tufts University and former Chancellor of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. David A.

Georgia Tech professor. James P. Physician and astronaut who flew on shuttle missions STS and STS Willie Banks. Alden G. Professional Scouter, fifth Chief Scout Executive - Ray Barnhart. Texas state representative; Texas state Republican chairman; director of Federal Highway Administration. Marion Barry. Mayor of Washington, D. Maxie Baughan. Retired football linebacker in the National Football League for the Philadelphia Eagles, Los Angeles Rams, and the Washington Redskins.

Harry Brinkley Bass. Navy fighter pilot killed in action over France during World War II; awarded the Navy Cross twice and the Silver Star ; USS Brinkley Bass DD was named in his honor. Charles E. President of West Virginia University Institute of Technology ; regional vice-president of West Virginia University.

Daniel Carter Beard. Stephen Bechtel Jr. Chairman Emeritus and Director of Bechtel. John Beck. National Football League quarterback for the Miami Dolphins and Baltimore Ravens. Emory Bellard. Albert Belle. Major League Baseball outfielder for the Cleveland IndiansChicago White Soxand Baltimore Orioles ; first player to hit 50 doubles and 50 home runs in a single season. Charles Edward Bennett. Steve Benson. editorial cartoonist for The Arizona Republic.

Lloyd Bentsen. Representative - from Texas; senator from Texas - ; nominee for Vice President of the United States ; chairman of the Senate Finance Committee ; Secretary of the Treasury - Lee Rogers Berger. Internationally renowned paleoanthropologistphysical anthropologist and archeologist. Sam Berns. Suffered from progeria ; helped raise awareness of the disease.

Richard J. Member of the New Mexico House of Representatives - ; Mayor of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Dick Beyer. Professional wrestler ; schoolteacher; coach. Jeff Bingaman. Senator from New Mexico - ; attorney general of New Mexico - Robert Birkby. Adventure guide, author, photographer, speaker and trail designer; wrote the 10th, 11th and 12th editions of the Boy Scout Handbook and the 4th edition of the Fieldbook.

Arthur Gary Bishop. Sanford Bishop. Representative from Georgia. Frank S. News Anchor for NBC's Today Show to Michael Bloomberg. Mayor of the City of New York - ; businessman and the founder of Bloomberg L. Guion Bluford. Air Force colonel; astronaut who participated in four flights of the Space Shuttle - STS-8STSSTSand STSA ; first African American in space; designated as the emissary to return the Challenger flag to a Boy Scout troop.

Matthew Bogusz. Mayor of Des Plaines, Illinois. Charles H. Bonesteel III. Ken Bowersox. Navy captain; astronaut; test pilot; veteran of seven space flights- STSSTSSTSSTSSTSExpedition 6and Soyuz TMA Alpha L.

United States Marine Corps lieutenant general, combat veteran of World War II and the Korean War, decorated for his actions during the Battle of Iwo Jima and in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. William W. Rhodes Scholar ; National Basketball Association basketball player with the New York Knicks - ; Senator from New Jersey - ; US presidential candidate Brady Jr.

Astronaut who flew on shuttle mission STS James Brady. Gun control advocate; White House Press Secretary under President Ronald Reagan ; shot and became permanently disabled during the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan. Mike Braun. Aaron Brewer. Stephen Breyer. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. James Bridenstine. Member of the United States House of Representatives from Oklahoma's 1st congressional district -Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Beverly Briley.

Attorney, politician, mayor of Nashville, Tennessee. Wayne Brock. Jeff Brown. Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas. Rex Brown. Sherrod Brown. Representative - and senator from Ohio.

Russell Adam Burnham. Great-grandson of Frederick Russell Burnham ; U. Army's Soldier of the Year in and Medical Corps Non-commissioned officer of the Year in Caldwell Butler.

Jay Bybee. Federal judge on United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Marion Barry Lloyd Bentsen Sanford Bishop Guy Bluford Bill Bradley. Name Eagle Scout Awards Notability References Patrick T. John Tyler Caldwell. Chancellor of North Carolina State University - John F. Army general; last commander of the International Security Assistance Force.

William Durant Campbell. Founder of the World Scout Foundationmember of World Scout Committee. Milton Caniff. Cartoonist for the Terry and the Pirates and Steve Canyon comic strips. James J. Rear Admiral of the United States Navy. Russ Carnahan. Representative from Missouri - Gerald P. Marine Corps colonel; astronaut who commanded Skylab 4. Terrance Carroll. Former speaker of the Colorado House of Representatives - Sonny Carter.

Astronaut who flew on shuttle mission including STS ; medical doctor; Navy officer; test pilot; professional soccer player. Thomas Cech. Roger B. Navy lieutenant commander; pilot and astronaut; killed in the Apollo 1 training exercise. Kirk Chambers. National Football League offensive tackle for the Cleveland Browns - and Buffalo Bills.

Gregory Chamitoff. Astronaut who flew on missions STSExpedition 17Expedition 18STS Jake Chapman. Eugene Calvin Cheatham Jr. Air Force lieutenant colonel; fighter pilot with the Tuskegee Airmen during World War II; then flew over missions during the Korean War.

Kim B. Dean of the Faculty at Harvard Business School - ; president of Brigham Young University-Idaho - Preston Cloud. Tom C. Thad Cochran. Senator from Mississippi - George Thomas Coker. Navy commander; honored with the Navy Cross for his leadership as a prisoner of war during the Vietnam War.

Austin Collie. Wide receiver for the National Football League's Indianapolis Colts. Chris Collins. Representative from New York's 27th congressional district since Barber Conable. Representative from New York - ; president of the World Bank - Jim Cooper. Representative from Tennessee. Rob Corddry. Tom Cotter. American environmentalist, renewable energy advocate, social entrepreneurclergyman. Richard O.

Astronaut who was the pilot for the first Return to Space flight and flew shuttle missions STSSTSSTSISTS Steven Cozza.

Co-founder of the advocacy group Scouting for Allprofessional road bicycle racer. Mike Crapo. Edward F. Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics and of Engineering Systems at Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Ford Professor of Engineering. John Oliver Creighton. Navy captain; fighter pilot veteran of the Vietnam War ; test pilot; astronaut who flew shuttle missions STSGSTS and STS John W. Creighton Jr. Civilian aide to the Secretary of the Army ; CEO of Weyerhaeuser and United Airlines ; National President of the BSA.

Bobby Crespino. Roger K. Astronaut who flew on missions STS and STS Michael M. President of Arizona State University. Joe Cunningham. Representative for South Carolina's 1st congressional district. Ben Curtis. Clive Cussler. Adventure novelist and successful amateur marine archaeologist, founder of National Underwater and Marine Agency NUMA.

Milton Caniff Thad Cochran George Coker, receiving his DESA John Creighton. Name Eagle Scout Awards Notability References Richard F.

James Dale. Litigant in Boy Scouts of America v. Dalea landmark case decision by the Supreme Court of the United States on the rights of private organizations. William E. Honorary national chairman of Citizens for a Better America; Representative from California - Hal Daub. Representative from Nebraska - ; lawyer; Mayor of Omaha - James H. Daughdrill Jr. President of Rhodes College - John Denney. Collegiate BYU and professional Miami Dolphins American football player. William Derrough. Treasurer of the U.

Patrick Deuel. William DeVries. Cardiothoracic surgeon who performed the first successful permanent artificial heart implant. Jordan Devey. Football offensive lineman for the New England Patriots. David Dillon. Former CEO and chairman of the board of Kroger.

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George Hall Dixon. Served as president of First National Bank of Minnesota and First Bank Systems now US Bankand Deputy Secretary of the Treasury under Gerald Ford. Robert Dold. Representative from Illinois - Ivan Dorschner. Michael Dukakis. Governor of Massachusetts - and - ; US Presidential candidate Charles Duke. Air Force brigadier general; astronaut, as a member of Apollo 16 he became one of only twelve men who have walked on the Moon.

James "Red" Duke. Renowned surgeon; host of his own medical TV series and Texan icon who founded Houston's Life Flight using a model that was adopted nationally. Mike Dunne. Award-winning newspaper reporter at The Baton Rouge Morning Advocaste ; author; adjunct professor at Louisiana State University. Aquilla J. Lieutenant colonel in the Marine Corps during World War II who was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously for "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life" during the Battle of Kwajalein.

Ivan Dorschner Charles Duke Aquilla J. Name Eagle Scout Awards Notability References Ronnie Earle. District attorney for Travis County, Texas ; known for bringing to light the Jack Abramoff scandals and for filing charges against House majority leader Tom DeLay.

John Ehrlichman. Assistant to President Richard Nixon - Donn F. Air Force colonel; Apollo 7 astronaut. Arthur Rose Eldred. First Eagle Scout; agricultural official and executive; Navy veteran of World War I; received BSA's Bronze Honor Medal for lifesaving; first of four generations of Eagle Scouts. Mike Enzi. John Erickson. Founder, CEO, and Executive Chairman of Retirement Living TV and served for 28 years as CEO of Erickson Living, formerly Erickson Retirement Communities. Roy Estess.

Director of John C. Stennis Space Center - Daniel J. Governor of Washington - ; Senator - Arthur Eldred. Name Eagle Scout Awards Notability References David Farabee.

Documentary evidence is limited about Vulgar Latin for the purposes of comprehensive research, and the literature is often hard to interpret or generalize. Many of its speakers were soldiers, slaves, displaced peoples, and forced resettlers, more likely to be natives of conquered lands than natives of Rome.

In Western Europe, Latin gradually replaced Celtic and other Italic languageswhich were related to it by a shared Indo-European origin. Commonalities in syntax and vocabulary facilitated the adoption of Latin. Vulgar Latin is believed to have already had most of the features shared by all Romance languages, which distinguish them from Classical Latin, such as the almost complete loss of the Latin grammatical case system and its replacement by prepositions ; the loss of the neuter grammatical gender and comparative inflections ; replacement of some verb paradigms by innovations e.

To some scholars, this suggests the form of Vulgar Latin that evolved into the Romance languages was around during the time of the Roman Empire from the end of the first century BCand was spoken alongside the written Classical Latin which was reserved for official and formal occasions. Other scholars argue that the distinctions are more rightly viewed as indicative of sociolinguistic and register differences normally found within any language.

Both were mutually intelligible as one and the same language, which was true until very approximately the second half of the 7th century. However, within two hundred years Latin became a dead language since "the Romanized people of Europe could no longer understand texts that were read aloud or recited to them," [41] i.

Latin had ceased to be a first language and became a foreign language that had to be learned, if the label Latin is constrained to refer to a state of the language frozen in past time and restricted to linguistic features for the most part typical of higher registers. With the rise of the Roman Empire, Vulgar Latin spread first throughout Italy and then through southernwesterncentraland southeastern Europeand northern Africa along parts of western Asia.

During the political decline of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century, there were large-scale migrations into the empire, and the Latin-speaking world was fragmented into several independent states.

Central Europe and the Balkans were occupied by Germanic and Slavic tribes, as well as by Huns. These incursions isolated the Vlachs from the rest of Romance-speaking Europe. British and African Romance -the forms of Vulgar Latin used in Britain and the Roman province of Africawhere it had been spoken by much of the urban population-disappeared in the Middle Ages as did Pannonian Romance in what is now Hungary, and Moselle Romance in Germany.

In part due to regional dialects of the Latin language and local environments, several languages evolved from it. Meanwhile, large-scale migrations into the Eastern Roman Empire started with the Goths and continued with HunsAvarsBulgarsSlavsPechenegsHungarians and Cumans. The invasions of Slavs were the most thoroughgoing, and they partially reduced the Romanic element in the Balkans.

The Slavs named the Romance-speaking population Vlachswhile the latter called themselves "Ruman" or "Roman", from the Latin "Romanus" [44] The Daco-Roman dialect became fully distinct from the three dialects spoken South of the Danube -Aromanian, Istro-Romanian, and Megleno-Romanian-during the ninth and tenth centuries, when the Romanians sometimes called Vlachs or Wallachians emerged as a people.

Over the course of the fourth to eighth centuries, local changes in phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon accumulated to the point that the speech of any locale was noticeably different from another. In principle, differences between any two lects increased the more they were separated geographically, reducing easy mutual intelligibility between speakers of distant communities. The following are some examples with reflexes in several modern Romance languages for comparison:.

In all of the above examples, the words appearing in the fourth century Vulgate are the same words as would have been used in Classical Latin of c. It is likely that some of these words had already disappeared from casual speech by the time of the Glosses ; but if so, they may well have been still widely understood, as there is no recorded evidence that the common people of the time had difficulty understanding the language.

By the 8th century, the situation was very different.

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Unfortunately, this meant that parishioners could no longer understand the sermons of their priests, forcing the Council of Tours in to issue an edict that priests needed to translate their speeches into the rustica romana linguaan explicit acknowledgement of the reality of the Romance languages as separate languages from Latin. Some researchers [ who? The critical period between the 5thth centuries AD is poorly documented because little or no writing from the chaotic " Dark Ages " of the 5th-8th centuries has survived, and writing after that time was in consciously classicized Medieval Latinwith vernacular writing only beginning in earnest in the 11th or 12th centuries.

An exception such as the Oaths of Strasbourg is evidence that by the ninth century effective communication with a non-learned audience was carried out in evolved Romance.

A language that was closely related to medieval Romanian was spoken during the Dark Ages by Vlachs in the Balkans, Herzegovina, Dalmatia MorlachsUkraine HutsulsPoland GoralsSlovakia, and Czech Moravia, but gradually these communities lost their maternal language. Between the 10th and 13th centuries, some local vernaculars developed a written form and began to supplant Latin in many of its roles. In some countries, such as Portugalthis transition was expedited by force of law; whereas in others, such as Italymany prominent poets and writers used the vernacular of their own accord - some of the most famous in Italy being Giacomo da Lentini and Dante Alighieri.

Well before that, the vernacular was also used for practical purposes, such as the testimonies in the Placiti Cassinesiwritten - The invention of the printing press brought a tendency towards greater uniformity of standard languages within political boundaries, at the expense of other Romance languages and dialects less favored politically. In France, for instance, the dialect spoken in the region of Paris gradually spread to the entire country, and the Occitan of the south lost ground.

Significant sound changes affected the consonants of the Romance languages. There was a tendency to eliminate final consonants in Vulgar Latin, either by dropping them apocope or adding a vowel after them epenthesis.

Many final consonants were rare, occurring only in certain prepositions e. ad "towards", apud "at, near a person "conjunctions sed "but"demonstratives e. illud "that over there ", hoc "this"and nominative singular noun forms, especially of neuter nouns e. lac "milk", mel "honey", cor "heart". Many of these prepositions and conjunctions were replaced by others, while the nouns were regularized into forms based on their oblique stems that avoided the final consonants e.

Final -m was dropped in Vulgar Latin. Even in Classical Latinfinal -am-em-um inflectional suffixes of the accusative case were often elided in poetic metersuggesting the m was weakly pronounced, probably marking the nasalisation of the vowel before it.

Final -t was eventually dropped in many languages, although this often occurred several centuries after the Vulgar Latin period. For example, the reflex of -t was dropped in Old French and Old Spanish only around is analogical, not inherited. Old French also kept the third-person plural ending -nt intact. In Italo-Romance and the Eastern Romance languageseventually all final consonants were either dropped or protected by an epenthetic vowel, except in clitic forms e. prepositions conper.

Palatalization was one of the most important processes affecting consonants in Vulgar Latin. This eventually resulted in a whole series of " palatal " and postalveolar consonants in most Romance languages, e. Note how the environments become progressively less "palatal", and the languages affected become progressively fewer. The outcomes of palatalization depended on the historical stage, the consonants involved, and the languages involved. In both cases, phonetic palatalization must have remained in primitive Old French at least through the time when unstressed intertonic vowels were lost?

The effect of palatalization is indicated in the writing systems of almost all Romance languages, where the letters have the "hard" pronunciation [k, ?] in most situations, but a "soft" pronunciation e. This has the effect of keeping the modern spelling similar to the original Latin spelling, but complicates the relationship between sound and letter.

The following are examples of corresponding first-person plural indicative and subjunctive in a number of regular Portuguese verbs: marcamos, marquemos "we mark"; cacamos, cacemos "we hunt"; chegamos, cheguemos "we arrive"; averiguamos, averiguemos "we verify"; adequamos, adequemos "we adapt"; oferecemos, oferecamos "we offer"; dirigimos, dirijamos "we drive" erguemos, ergamos "we raise"; delinquimos, delincamos "we commit a crime".

Stop consonants shifted by lenition in Vulgar Latin in some areas. In many Romance languages Italian, French, Portuguese, Romanian, etc. Several other consonants were "softened" in intervocalic position in Western Romance Spanish, Portuguese, French, Northern Italianbut normally not phonemically in the rest of Italy except some cases of "elegant" or Ecclesiastical wordsnor apparently at all in Romanian. The dividing line between the two sets of dialects is called the La Spezia-Rimini Line and is one of the most important isoglosses of the Romance dialects.

a]and French vie [vi]. Some scholars once speculated that these sound changes may be due in part to the influence of Continental Celtic languages[ citation needed ] but scholarship of the past few decades challenges that hypothesis.

Consonant length is no longer phonemically distinctive in most Romance languages. They may even occur at the beginning of words in RomanescoNeapolitan, Sicilian and other southern varieties, and are occasionally indicated in writing, e. Sicilian cchiu moreand cca here. A few languages have regained secondary geminate consonants. Sardinia, southern Italy.

While Western Romance words undergo prothesis, cognates in Balkan Romance and southern Italo-Romance do not, e. Italian scriverespadaspiritoStefanoand stato.

One profound change that affected Vulgar Latin was the reorganisation of its vowel system. Classical Latin had five short vowels, a, e, i, o, uand five long vowelsa, e, i, o, ueach of which was an individual phoneme see the table in the right, for their likely pronunciation in IPAand four diphthongsaeoeau and eu five according to some authors, including ui. There is evidence that in the imperial period all the short vowels except a differed by quality as well as by length from their long counterparts.

During the Proto-Romance period, phonemic length distinctions were lost. Vowels came to be automatically pronounced long in stressed, open syllables i. when followed by only one consonantand pronounced short everywhere else. This situation is still maintained in modern Italian: cade [?ka?de] "he falls" vs. cadde [?kadde] "he fell". Soon, however, many of these vowels coalesced:.

Further variants are found in southern Italy and Corsica, which also boasts a completely distinct system see above. The Proto-Romance allophonic vowel-length system was rephonemicized in the Gallo-Romance languages as a result of the loss of many final vowels.

Some northern Italian languages e. Friulian still maintain this secondary phonemic length, but most languages dropped it by either diphthongizing or shortening the new long vowels. This vowel length was eventually lost by around A but the former long vowels are still marked with a circumflex. This system in turn has been phonemicized in some non-standard dialects e. at the latest. A number of authors remarked on this explicitly, e. Cicero 's taunt that the populist politician Publius Clodius Pulcher had changed his name from Claudius to ingratiate himself with the masses.

An early process that operated in all Romance languages to varying degrees was metaphony vowel mutationconceptually similar to the umlaut process so characteristic of the Germanic languages. Metaphony is most extensive in the Italo-Romance languages, and applies to nearly all languages in Italy; however, it is absent from Tuscan, and hence from standard Italian.

masculine "mass" nounsand only the former triggers metaphony. These diphthongizations had the effect of reducing or eliminating the distinctions between open-mid and close-mid vowels in many languages. In Spanish and Romanian, all open-mid vowels were diphthongized, and the distinction disappeared entirely. Portuguese is the most conservative in this respect, keeping the seven-vowel system more or less unchanged but with changes in particular circumstances, e.

due to metaphony. In French and Italian, the distinction between open-mid and close-mid vowels occurred only in closed syllables. Standard Italian more or less maintains this.

Generally this led to a situation where both [e,o] and [?,?] occur allophonically, with the close-mid vowels in open syllables and the open-mid vowels in closed syllables. Originally, all vowels in both languages were nasalized before any nasal consonants, and nasal consonants not immediately followed by a vowel were eventually dropped. In French, nasal vowels before remaining nasal consonants were subsequently denasalized, but not before causing the vowels to lower somewhat, e.

There was more variability in the result of the unstressed vowels. Originally in Proto-Romance, the same nine vowels developed in unstressed as stressed syllables, and in Sardinian, they coalesced into the same five vowels in the same way.

In Italo-Western Romance, however, vowels in unstressed syllables were significantly different from stressed vowels, with yet a third outcome for final unstressed syllables. This system is still preserved, largely or completely, in all of the conservative Romance languages e. Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan.

In final unstressed syllables, results were somewhat complex. Evidence of this comes from Rhaeto-Romancein particular Sursilvanwhich preserves reflexes of both final -us and -umand where the latter, but not the former, triggers metaphony. The original five-vowel system in final unstressed syllables was preserved as-is in some of the more conservative central Italian languages, but in most languages there was further coalescence:.

The so-called intertonic vowels are word-internal unstressed vowels, i. not in the initial, final, or tonic i. stressed syllable, hence intertonic.

Intertonic vowels were the most subject to loss or modification. But many languages ultimately dropped almost all intertonic vowels. The Romance languages for the most part have kept the writing system of Latin, adapting it to their evolution. One exception was Romanian before the nineteenth century, where, after the Roman retreat, literacy was reintroduced through the Romanian Cyrillic alphabeta Slavic influence.

A Cyrillic alphabet was also used for Romanian then called Moldovan in the USSR. The non-Christian populations of Spain also used the scripts of their religions Arabic and Hebrew to write Romance languages such as Ladino and Mozarabic in aljamiado.

The Romance languages are written with the classical Latin alphabet of 23 letters - ABCEFGHIKLMNOPQRSTVXYZ - subsequently modified and augmented in various ways. In particular, the single Latin letter V split into V consonant and U voweland the letter I split into I and J. The Latin letter K and the new letter Wwhich came to be widely used in Germanic languages, are seldom used in most Romance languages - mostly for unassimilated foreign names and words. Indeed, in Italian prose kilometro is properly chilometro.

Catalan eschews importation of "foreign" letters more than most languages. Thus Wikipedia is Viquipedia in Catalan but Wikipedia in Spanish. While most of the 23 basic Latin letters have maintained their phonetic value, for some of them it has diverged considerably; and the new letters added since the Middle Ages have been put to different uses in different scripts.

Some letters, notably H and Qhave been variously combined in digraphs or trigraphs see below to represent phonetic phenomena that could not be recorded with the basic Latin alphabet, or to get around previously established spelling conventions. Most languages added auxiliary marks diacritics to some letters, for these and other purposes. The spelling rules of most Romance languages are fairly simple, and consistent within any language. Since the spelling systems are based on phonemic structures rather than phonetics, however, the actual pronunciation of what is represented in standard orthography can be subject to considerable regional variation, as well as to allophonic differentiation by position in the word or utterance.

Among the letters representing the most conspicuous phonological variations, between Romance languages or with respect to Latin, are the following:. Otherwise, letters that are not combined as digraphs generally represent the same phonemes as suggested by the International Phonetic Alphabet IPAwhose design was, in fact, greatly influenced by Romance spelling systems. Since most Romance languages have more sounds than can be accommodated in the Roman Latin alphabet they all resort to the use of digraphs and trigraphs - combinations of two or three letters with a single phonemic value.

The concept but not the actual combinations is derived from Classical Latin, which used, for example, THPHand CH when transliterating the Greek letters "?", "?" later "?"and "?". Some of the digraphs used in modern scripts are:. Geminationin the languages where it occurs, is usually indicated by doubling the consonant, except when it does not contrast phonemically with the corresponding short consonant, in which case gemination is not indicated.

The double consonants in French orthography, however, are merely etymological. Romance languages also introduced various marks diacritics that may be attached to some letters, for various purposes. In some cases, diacritics are used as an alternative to digraphs and trigraphs; namely to represent a larger number of sounds than would be possible with the basic alphabet, or to distinguish between sounds that were previously written the same.

Diacritics are also used to mark word stress, to indicate exceptional pronunciation of letters in certain words, and to distinguish words with same pronunciation homophones. Depending on the language, some letter-diacritic combinations may be considered distinct letters, e. for the purposes of lexical sorting. This is the case, for example, of Romanian ? [?] and Spanish n [?].

Most languages are written with a mixture of two distinct but phonetically identical variants or " cases " of the alphabet: majuscule "uppercase" or "capital letters"derived from Roman stone-carved letter shapes, and minuscule "lowercase"derived from Carolingian writing and Medieval quill pen handwriting which were later adapted by printers in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

In particular, all Romance languages capitalize use uppercase for the first letter of the following words: the first word of each complete sentencemost words in names of people, places, and organizations, and most words in titles of books.

The Romance languages do not follow the German practice of capitalizing all nouns including common ones.

Does amateur nn model teen express gratitude for

Unlike English, the names of months, days of the weeks, and derivatives of proper nouns are usually not capitalized: thus, in Italian one capitalizes Francia "France" and Francesco "Francis"but not francese "French" or francescano "Franciscan".

However, each language has some exceptions to this general rule. The tables below provide a vocabulary comparison that illustrates a number of examples of sound shifts that have occurred between Latin and Romance languages. Words are given in their conventional spellings. In addition, for French the actual pronunciation is given, due to the dramatic differences between spelling and pronunciation. French spelling approximately reflects the pronunciation of Old Frenchc.

Data from Ethnologue : [84]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin.

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Official language. Co-official or coexists with other languages. Cultural or secondary language. List of Indo-European languages Extant Albanian Armenian Balto-Slavic Baltic Slavic Celtic Germanic Hellenic Greek Indo-Iranian Indo-Aryan Iranian Italic Romance Extinct Anatolian Tocharian Paleo-Balkan Dacian Illyrian Liburnian Messapian Mysian Paeonian Phrygian Thracian Reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language Phonology : Sound lawsAccentAblaut Hypothetical Daco-Thracian Graeco-Armenian Graeco-Aryan Graeco-Phrygian Indo-Hittite Italo-Celtic Thraco-Illyrian Grammar Vocabulary Root Verbs Nouns Pronouns Numerals Particles Other Proto-Albanian Proto-Anatolian Proto-Armenian Proto-Germanic Proto-Norse Proto-Celtic Proto-Italic Proto-Greek Proto-Balto-Slavic Proto-Slavic Proto-Indo-Iranian Proto-Iranian.

Hittite texts Hieroglyphic Luwian Linear B Rigveda Avesta Homer Behistun Gaulish epigraphy Latin epigraphy Runic epigraphy Ogam Gothic Bible Armenian Bible Slanting Brahmi Old Irish glosses. Homeland Proto-Indo-Europeans Society Religion Mainstream Kurgan hypothesis Indo-European migrations Eurasian nomads Alternative and fringe Anatolian hypothesis Armenian hypothesis Beech argument Indigenous Aryans Baltic homeland Paleolithic Continuity Theory. Peoples and societies.

Religion and mythology. Indo-European studies. Scholars Marija Gimbutas J. Mallory Institutes Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European Publications Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture The Horse, the Wheel and Language Journal of Indo-European Studies Indogermanisches etymologisches Worterbuch Indo-European Etymological Dictionary.

This section may contain indiscriminateexcessiveor irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. September Main article: Classification of Romance languages.

Main article: Gallo-Romance languages. Main articles: Constructed language and International auxiliary language. Main articles: Romance-speaking EuropeLatin AmericaLatin UnionRomance-speaking Africaand Romance-speaking world. Main article: Vulgar Latin. Main article: Phonological changes from Classical Latin to Proto-Romance. See also: Vulgar Latin. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

February Learn how and when to remove this template message. For a table of examples of palatalized n and l in the Romance languages, see palatalization sound change Mouille. Main article: Metaphony Romance languages. Main article: Latin script. Vulgar Latin. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN Retrieved 14 November doi : Paul Lewis, " Summary by language size ", Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth Edition. The Linguasphere register of the world's languages and speech communities.

Oxford, England: Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Retrieved July 30, Linguistica Romanica. Retrieved Encyclop?dia Britannica. Retrieved 2 December Online Etymology Dictionary. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Studies. Archived from the original on A guide to the world's languagesStanford University Press, Stanford. In Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel eds. The Romance Languages. New York: Oxford University Press. In Maiden; et al. The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages: Volume 1, Structures.

The Oxford Guide to the Romance Languages. Oxford University Press. La langue corse 1st ed. Paris: Presses universitaires de France. Compare comment 1 at the blog Language Hat and comment 2. Archived from the original on De Latino Sine Flexione. Lingua Auxiliare Internationale [2]Revista de Mathematica Revue de MathematiquesTomo VIII, pp. Fratres Bocca Editores: Torino. Archived from the original on June 10, Microsoft Encarta SIL Haley.

Reliques of Ancient English Poetry: Consisting of Old Heroic Ballads, Songs, Etc. Abe Books. Erdely tortenetenek atlasza [Atlas of the History of Transylvania]. Mery Ratio. The American Journal of Philology. JSTOR Penn State Press. Romance Languages. London, England, UK: Routledge. The French language: past and present. London: Grant and Cutler Ltd. In Treffers-Daller, Jeanine; Willemyns, Roland eds. Language Contact at the Romance-Germanic Language Border.

Multilingual Matters. The same vowel outcome occurred in a small strip running across southern Italy the Lausberg Zoneand is thought to have occurred in the Romance languages of northern Africa. The Modern Language Review. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Although no longer pronounced, it reveals its former presence by inhibiting elision of a preceding schwae.

le haut "the high" vs. l'eau "the water". Note that this parallels the state of affairs in Celtic, where the cognate of ego is not attested anywhere, and the use of the accusative form cognate to me has been extended to cover the nominative, as well. Romance languages classification. Italian dialects Central Tuscan Corsican Gallurese Sassarese Judaeo-Italian.

Neapolitan Northern Calabrese Sicilian Southern Calabrese. Dalmatian Istriot. Asturian Cantabrian Extremaduran Leonese Mirandese. Spanish dialects Equatoguinean European Latin American Philippine Saharan Creoles Old Spanish Judaeo-Spanish Calo. Navarro-Aragonese Aragonese Judaeo-Aragonese Mozarabic. Catalan dialects Eastern Algherese Balearic Central Northern Western North-Western Valencian Judaeo-Catalan Calo. Auvergnat Gascon Aranese Bearnese Languedocien Limousin Provencal Nicard Mentonasc Vivaro-Alpine Old Provencal Judaeo-Provencal Calo.

Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French dialects Standard African Aostan Belgian Cambodian Canadian Indian Laotian Swiss Vietnamese Old French Middle French Judaeo-French Creoles Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Poitevin Saintongeais Walloon.

Ligurian Brigasc Genoese Intemelio Monegasque Lombard Western Eastern Emilian-Romagnol Emilian Bolognese Parmigiano Romagnol Piedmontese Judaeo-Piedmontese Gallo-Italic of Sicily Gallo-Italic of Basilicata. Venetian Fiuman Talian Triestine Mediterranean Lingua Franca.

Friulian Ladin Romansh. Romanian Moldovan Vlach Aromanian Istro-Romanian Megleno-Romanian. African Romance British Latin Moselle Romance Pannonian Romance Sardinian Campidanese Logudorese. Italics indicate extinct languages Bold indicates languages with more than 5 million speakers Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left.

Authority control. Integrated Authority File Germany. France data United States Japan. Microsoft Academic SUDOC France 1. Categories : Romance languages Latino-Faliscan languages. Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

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